Silica Nanoparticles: Preparation, Properties and Uses
Eu Si-OH nanoparticles were obtained after coating silyl group modified Eu complexes with silica via reverse microemulsion method. The silica layer kept the complexes from the quenchers OH and NH 2 groups. As a result, both of them showed better photostability in Fig. Eu Si-NH 2 nanoparticles exhibited good performances in bioimaging.
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Ezquerro et al. With the protection of silica, these phosphors showed excellent stability under not only ambient conditions but also harsh environments which have further application in white light-emitting diode WLED. Li et al. The surface quenching was suppressed after silica coating and as a result the emission intensity enhanced as shown in Fig.
The water-soluble nanoparticles with two different emissions were obtained with the help of silica. Chen et al. The carbon dot-silica-phosphor composite CDSP was synthesized after centrifuging, drying, and grinding. CDSP showed better white emission 0. Two components dispersed homogeneously with silica and decreased the probability of aggregation and phase separation. Silica is commonly used as protective layer for luminescent materials to keep proper distance from noble metals in order to enhance fluorescence. This is due to the standing oscillation of free electrons caused by light.
In order to enhance the luminescence, it needs to be kept in an appropriate distance between dyes and noble metal particles. In the early research, Tuo Li et al. The reagents needed to produce silica TEOS and cyclohexane were injected into the microemulsion after silver reduced. It is a good path to coat a uniform and thick silica layer on the core not only Ag but also other nanoparticles with microemulsion system. What Zhenhua Bai et al. But extreme pH conditions made it insensitive. When the solution is acidic, its fluorescence efficiency would decrease significantly.
It could be seen from Fig. Because of quantum confinement effect, QDs exhibit excellent luminescence properties whether they are semiconductor QDs, carbon QDs, or other types. Recently, numerous studies have focused on the applications of QDs in optical devices. Sometimes, their properties are not good enough to adapt the complex applications. Necessary modification is imperative and silica is a suitable matrix [ 1 ].
To realize the combination of biolabel and magnetic resonance imaging, CdSe QDs were coated on the magnetic Fe 2 O 3 core by a silica layer with NH 2 group. The associated pictures and characterizations were showed in Fig. With the biocompatibility and magnetic, the multifunctional luminescence nanoparticles would gain broad applications in medicine. The photographs under normal light to prove the magnetic modification a , b.
To broaden QDs application, it is necessary to modify their water solubility and non-toxicity. Yunfei Ma et al. To ensure the stability of QDs in optical devices, it is necessary to reduce the effect of blinking. Blinking is a phenomenon with a random intermittent luminescence which affects the stability of the QDs optical devices [ 62 ]. To reduce the effect of blinking, Botao Ji et al. And the QDs further modified by an Au layer on the surface of silica with poly 1-vinylimidazole-co-vinyltrimethoxysilane PVIS as the silane coupling agent.
The nano-sized gold shell acted as a plasmon resonator that gave the QDs enhanced optical states density. The golden QDs showed efficient multiexciton emission and its neutral photoluminescence intensity was higher than that of QDs. The results of the stability test were shown in Fig. Silica layer improved the performance of QDs slightly but it provided the suitable interval for the next Au layer to show the plasma enhanced effect. For the fabrication of LSNs, selection of phosphors and design of synthetic routes are the core contents.
Phosphors determine the emission range of LSNs and synthetic routes establish their structures and functions. All the synthetic routes of LSNs are based on the silica. Sol-gel method, reverse microemulsion method, and direct micelles assistant method are three major approaches to obtain homogeneous and regular silica spheres which have been used in LSNs. The shematic illustrations of different LSNs with different methods. Homogeneous silica spheres with different sizes 10 to several hundreds of nanometers can be easily obtained by controlling the synthesis conditions such as the ethanol-to-water ratio, the amount of ammonia, and the temperature via sol-gel method.
Luis M. Liz-Marzan et al. Lingang Yang et al. Three OSNCs had been synthesized with the same crystal structure but in different sizes as shown in Fig. As a result, they showed different luminescent properties as showed for Fig. OSNCs were characterized to possess good photo-stability and pH stability. These OSNCs had great potential on the optical fields owing to the characteristics of silica which provided a new approach to get self-luminescence silica materials. To overcome such limitations, Bagwe and Khilar [ 66 ] introduced water-in-oil microemulsion system [ 67 ] during the synthesis of silver coated with silica nanocomposites Fig.
The initial alkaline aqueous solution of silver nanoparticles with TEOS was encapsulated in the water drop using surfactants. But the whole progress was restricted into water droplets enclosed by surfactants which led to a well-controlled system and monodispersed silica nanoparticles. The size of silica was well controlled by selecting different surfactants, solvents, and changing the ratio of surfactant to water.
When the fluorophores are hydrosoluble, it is easy to form a homogeneous silica layer on the surface within the molecules in the droplet. Nianfang Wang et al. The protected QDs showed excellent acid and thermal stability. It provided possibility for further modification to meet special requirements for applications. Reverse microemulsion method require the water-soluble luminescence dyes. Inversely, liposoluble initial micelles are the major features of direct micelle method, and the hydrolysis progress takes place around of the micelles Fig.
A precursor is indispensable for the agglomeration of silica. As a common progress, the luminescent dye is modified with the silane coupling agent, such as APS, to form the assistant micelles. The initial modified micelles ensure that the TEOS condensation occurs around them. The role of the surfactant is not only reflected in the silica synthesis but also in the synthesis of mesoporous silica. A common method of synthesizing mesoporous silica is calcination. Large specific surface area and modifiable surfaces make the mesoporous silica nanoparticles perfect carriers. In addition to the known application value in the field of medical drug loading, it also has important application prospects in the field of loading phosphors.
Li Wang et al. Mesoporous structure makes them unique. Bin Xie et al. Because of the encapsulation of silica, the modified Gd 2 O 3 :Eu nanoparticles showed excellent solubility and biocompatibility. There are also other methods to synthesize LSNs such as chemical vapor deposition CVD [ 71 ], hydrothermal method [ 51 ], and amino acid-catalyzed seed regrowth technique [ 72 , 73 ]. Lianzhen Cao et al. The synthetic method provided a new way to synthesize core-shell nanomaterials. Chandra et al. The final products were obtained after further purification including dialysis and centrifugation.
It was non-photobleaching and biocompatible at the same time. Surface modification makes the LSNs more tunable for complex application [ 74 ]. Silane coupling agents are the most common chemical methods as it mentions before. Abundant hydroxyl groups provide reaction sites for further modifications.
Junqiang Wang et al. After hydrolysis and condensation, silane coupling agents with different function groups bond on the surface of silica. Ming Ma et al. Surface modification can enhance their adaptability in complex environments and get improved luminescence properties with appropriate materials. Among these methods, there are two main ideas to fabricate LSNs, namely the luminescent dyes are added directly into the reaction system when the silica resources start hydrolyzing, and that the luminescent dyes are established chemical bond with silica by other reagents such as silane coupling agents, either before or after silica network set up.
It is necessary to select and design an appropriate synthetic route for LSNs with specific structures. Light is the most intuitive tool for people to recognize the world. Luminescent materials with special emission can be directly used in many ways such as lighting, display, and so on. At the same time, changes in fluorescence intensity can reflect some important information.
Compared with separate luminescent dyes, LSNs have improved performances in applications, since silica provides a stable matrix for the luminescent dye. It provides an effective way for multifunction at the same time [ 6 ]. LSNs with multifunction and tunable surface have great application prospects and development potential in biology, lighting, and sensors. LSNs have great application value in biology. Non-toxicity is a fundamental requirement for medical field, especially in vivo [ 78 ].
The fact that the common luminescent dyes are often toxic limits their clinical application [ 79 ]. Silica, a favorite non-toxic modified material, is a good solution to elimination of toxicity. Size, dose, and cell type-dependent cytotoxicity were the issues in their research. Different cells had different tolerance to silica nanoparticles which indicated that it was necessary to have substantial tests before clinical tests.
Although inhalation of silica particles can cause acute and chronic diseases including silicosis [ 81 ], silica still has potential in biological application at the nanoscale. The toxicity of luminescent silica nanoparticles to living cells was studied in detail by Yuhui Jin et al. At a certain concentration, the results showed that the dye-doped luminescent silica nanoparticles were non-toxic to the targeted DNA and cells, which indicate that LSNs are a good solution to the non-toxic modification.
Xiqi Zhang et al. Coated with silica lead to an enhanced fluorescence intensity, good water solubility, and non-toxicity to living cells which made the AnSiO 2 NPs had a potential for biomedical application. LSNs have great application value in diagnosis and biolabeling. For hybrid imaging contrast agents, Dong Kee Yi et al. Magnetic resonance imaging MRI is an effective method for disease detection, especially for cancer.
The advantages of feasible usage, low cost, and accurate diagnosis make it more popular as a diagnostic tool [ 7 ]. The nanocomposites can be used as both optical and MRI contrast agents. Willam J. Rieter et al. What is different is that [Ru bpy 3 ] Cl 2 was chosen as the luminescent core and the paramagnetic Gd complex was coated on the luminescent core by water-in-oil reverse microemulsion method.
The nanocomposites were finally embedded in silica in the same way. The results of Fig. They found that Eu-MSNs had a positive influence on osteogenesis and angiogenesis-induction. By promoting proper response of macrophages and the expression of relevant genes, the defect of bone replaced by new bone and the healing process of skin wound can accelerate with Eu-MSNs.
Besides the function of biolabeling, the LSNs showed the potential in tissue repair. LSNs can achieve the target binding effect by modifying the special group. With a further modification of an amino acid spacer and an anchor group anti- Escherichia coli , IgG1 , the functionalized silica had the specific bonding with E. It was easy to get the distribution of E. According to claim 1, wherein said C 1 -C 5 alcohol is methanol, ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, butanol, isobutanol, pentanol, and iso-pentanol characterized in that the method for producing the silica nanoparticles as selected from the group consisting of.
The method wherein the polyvinyl silica nanoparticles, characterized in that the weight average molecular weight of the pyrrolidone of 5, to 55, prepared in claim 1. The method of claim 1, wherein the basic substance is ammonia, a method for producing a silica nanoparticle, characterized in that the member selected from the group consisting of sodium and potassium.
The method wherein the silica precursor is tetraethyl orthosilicate, tetramethyl orthosilicate, tetrabutyl orthosilicate, tetrachlorosilane, and silica nanoparticles, characterized in that is selected from the group consisting of sodium silicate prepared according to claim 1. The method of claim 1, wherein producing the silica nanoparticle, characterized in that the size of the silica nanoparticles of 20 nm to nm that is.
The method of claim 1, wherein the silica nanoparticles are produced silica nanoparticles, characterized in that the water-dispersible. Method for manufacturing silica nanoparticles with excellent water dispersion properties. KRB1 en. WOA1 en. Metal nano particles doped with silicate luminescent materials and preparation methods thereof. KRA en. Wu et al. Controlling physical features of mesoporous silica nanoparticles MSNs for emerging applications. USB2 en. Controlled release ceramic particles, compositions thereof, processes of preparation and methods of use. Mahtab et al.
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Mechanically encoded cellular shapes for synthesis of anisotropic mesoporous particles. Anisotropic growth-induced synthesis of dual-compartment Janus mesoporous silica nanoparticles for bimodal triggered drugs delivery. Anisotropic encapsulation-induced synthesis of asymmetric single-hole mesoporous nanocages. Yang, T. Dumbbell-shaped bi-component mesoporous janus solid nanoparticles for biphasic interface catalysis.
Wu, Y. Colloidal rings by site-selective growth on patchy colloidal disc templates. Chen, Y. Colloidal RBC-shaped, hydrophilic, and hollow mesoporous carbon nanocapsules for highly efficient biomedical engineering. Pei, F. From hollow carbon spheres to N-doped hollow porous carbon bowls: Rational design of hollow carbon host for Li-S batteries. Energy Mater. Yang, C. Synthesis of open helmet-like carbon skeletons for application in lithium-ion batteries. A , 6 , — Liu, D. Uniform concave polystyrene-carbon core—shell nanospheres by a swelling induced buckling process. Fang, Y.
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Kuijk, A. Synthesis of monodisperse, rodlike silica colloids with tunable aspect ratio. Yi, D.